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Societal discrimination and mental health among transgender athletes: a systematic review and Meta-analysis


Discrimination and inequality have been identified as significant problems faced by transgender individuals in sports participation. However, uncertainties remain regarding the effectiveness of interventions aimed at promoting equality.


This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine the experiences of transgender athletes in sports, focusing on mental health issues and factors contributing to inequality among transgender and other sexual minorities.


The study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and searched 10 electronic databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science, to identify eligible studies published between 2005 and 2022. The search yielded 1430 articles, of which only 12 studies met the inclusion criteria for this review.

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